From the band division, the most commonly used is the visible light band and micro blog band (as well as infrared band).
Visible light band (0.38um to 0.76um are visible light), which is a band that can be recognized by the human eye (various colors in nature are in this band). Visible remote sensing adds color information on the basis of large-scale monitoring, which helps us to identify different ground objects from images (spectral information of different ground objects is different).
The disadvantage is that the visible light band is short, and it is difficult to penetrate the atmosphere in case of bad weather, It will cause large imaging errors and there will be many cloud spots on the image (which are caused by clouds and fog).
Infrared band (0.76 μ m to 1 mm) This band is very sensitive to temperature changes and is often used to monitor fire changes. Infrared satellite remote sensing technology can realize dynamic monitoring of forest fire in a large range. In addition, there is a thermal infrared imager, which is a common imaging device in movies at night. Through this device, you can see a red thermal image of a human figure.
Microwave band (1mm to 1m): This band has the longest wavelength and the strongest penetrability. It is less affected by rain and snow and can be used in any weather at any time. In the famous Gulf War, the United States used microwave remote sensing technology to identify some of the enemy's camouflage equipment.
In addition, in order to achieve large-scale repeated monitoring of the Earth in a short period of time (dynamic monitoring can only be achieved if the ground can be repeatedly monitored in a short period of time), countries no longer launch a satellite to the sky alone, but build a satellite system - multiple satellite linkage, so as to achieve the purpose of covering the Earth once in a short period of time to achieve dynamic detection.
It is rare to use the visible light band remote sensing technology or microwave band remote sensing technology alone, and often multiple bands are used together to achieve the effect of complementary advantages.
To sum up, the technical features of satellite remote sensing are as follows:
1. High viewpoint and wide field of view (to put it bluntly, scanning a large area at one time). At the same time, because the high view point (in space) is limited by geological conditions and ocean lakes, many areas that are difficult for human to reach can also be monitored.
2. Under the condition of joint monitoring by multiple satellites, remote sensing data of the same area can be obtained repeatedly in a short time, so as to achieve the effect of dynamic monitoring.
3. The data is transmitted to the ground data center in the form of digital images, and the computer is directly used for image processing and analysis, which greatly reduces human and material resources.
4. The satellites are classified into environmental remote sensing satellites, high-resolution satellites, land resource satellites, etc. According to different needs, different satellite remote sensing technologies can be used or multiple satellite remote sensing technologies can be combined to obtain information data with higher accuracy and meet the needs.