Remote sensing is a technical means to perceive and detect the target object from a long distance. Without direct contact with the target object, it obtains the geometry, image and other characteristic data of the target object through a certain remote sensor, and then further extracts, judges, processes, processes and analyzes the obtained data. Satellite remote sensing is an aerospace engineering technology that operates and applies remote sensing through satellite platforms and remote sensors (also known as payloads) loaded on them.
Based on the advantages of space orbit height, satellite remote sensing can transcend national boundaries and implement large-scale, high-precision observation, detection, monitoring and other tasks globally, providing important support for human economic and social development and human research and understanding of the atmosphere, oceans, land, rocks, ice and snow, biology and other Earth spheres.
Satellite remote sensing system mainly includes remote sensing satellite (system), ground measurement and control station, ground receiving station, calibration field network, ground application system, etc. Remote sensing satellite is responsible for detecting or imaging observation of the target area to obtain remote sensing data. The ground TT&C station tracks, telemeters, remotely controls and monitors the status of satellites. The ground receiving station is responsible for downloading and receiving the remote sensing data acquired by the satellite to the ground in time when the satellite passes the zenith. Generally, it is equipped with a large receiving antenna and related facilities. The calibration field network consists of multiple ground calibration fields, calibration fields, verification fields and ancillary facilities, such as China Songshan Satellite Remote Sensing Calibration Field, Dunhuang Radiation Calibration Field, Baotou Remote Sensing Comprehensive Verification Field, etc. It is mainly used for radiometric calibration, geometric calibration and performance verification of remote sensing satellite payloads to improve the accuracy and accuracy of remote sensing data. It is a necessary facility for quantitative remote sensing applications. The ground application system is responsible for the storage and distribution of remote sensing data, geometric/radiometric correction preprocessing, deep processing and value-added development, production of thematic products, or provision of customized services, and conversion of a large amount of remote sensing data into information, intelligence or knowledge.
After decades of development, satellite remote sensing has entered a new stage of comprehensive observation of the earth as a whole. It can study the global behavior of the earth with a global holistic view, a systematic view and multiple space-time scales. With the accelerated progress of information, networking and intelligent technologies, the value of satellite remote sensing data is constantly being explored. Satellite remote sensing applications have penetrated into more industries and fields, embedded in the value chain of governments, industries, enterprises and scientific research institutions, and served a wider range of markets and users. High resolution remote sensing satellite is a pioneer in the national high-tech field. Remote sensing satellite and application system have become an important part of the national information infrastructure.